|Q1．||Independent task||15秒||45秒||なじみ深く一般的な問題 －General questions about person (人)、object (物)、place (場所)、event & activity (行事と活動)
( Reading +Listening )
- Delivery （流れ、発音、ペース、イントネーション等）
- Language use（文法と用語の使い方）
- Topic development （内容と論理性）
タスク：Which/ What / Why / Who / how が問われます。自分の意見を言い、理由2つとその例を挙げて、結論を述べる
|part 1 のスピーキングの答え方
|Introduction: I would choose A|
|結論：That is why I believe that A|
例題：Who is your favorite relative and explain why does he or she mean so much to you? Include specific examples and details in your explanation.
①My favorite relative is my Uncle Hiro. ②He has always been kind and generous to me, and I can talk to him easily because he’s a lot younger than my parents. ③When I was little, he used to take me to the park to play catch on Sundays. We often went camping in the summer and skiing in the winter. Recently, when I was unable to make a decision about my future path, it was Uncle John who encouraged me to go to college. He was also generous enough to give me money to pay for part of my tuition. ④ I am really lucky to have such a nice uncle. (108 words)
タスク：Which do you prefer/ Agree or disagree? が問われます。自分がどちらに賛成、反対するかを述べて、その理由を具体例を入れて述べる
|Introduction: Personally, I believe that A|
|結論：That is why I believe that A|
例題：Do you prefer to go out to dinner or stay home and cook a meal? Use reasons to support your response.
①Personally, I love cooking in my own home.
②There are so many reasons for this. First, financially, it’s impossible to eat out often. You would end up spending a lot of extra money for no reason.③Second, health-wise, when I cook at home, I have control and can produce much more nutritious meals. Outside, I have no idea of the quality or quantity of the ingredients they have used.④Third, emotionally, cooking at home makes me feel relaxed, happy and secure. It gives me a warm feeling to know that my home smells of the delicious food that I have cooked. I also enjoy sharing a meal with my loved ones.⑤That’s why I only eat out on very special occasions or when I have no choice.
①リーディング （45秒）→ ②リスニング（会話）→ ③設問に対するスピーキング
- リーディングの内容を簡潔にメモしておく what/where/when ➡リスニングの時に画面から消えてしまうため
- ３０秒の内にメモの書き足しをする （順序よく読めるようにしておく）
- レポート形式の場合はで 必ず 〇 the man says ✖ the man said that のように動詞の時制を現在形にする
|There is an announcement on campus about|
|Two students discuss the announcement|
|The man says|
|The woman says|
①リーディングパート(45秒) ：The health center is planning to make changes in the health fees. Read the notice from the health centre. Begin reading now.
A Notice from the Health centre
The Health centre will be offering flu vaccinations for $15 at the start of next month. There is a limited supply so be sure to sign up for an appointment as soon as possible. Last flue season vaccinations were free, but due to a reduction in student fees, there will be a charge for certain medical services that formerly were free. Also, there has been an increase in the cost of the medicines form the pharmaceutical company. As a result, there will be an additional $5 charge on all prescription medicine dispensed by the Health centre.
②リスニングパート: Now listening to two students discussing the notice.
M: That’s pretty good deal.
W: What do you mean? They increased the price of the vaccine and now we have to pay additional fees for some health services.
M: It’s still cheaper than if you went to the hospital to have it done. I hear that they charge $80 per vaccine. We are saving a tone of money just by using the Health centre. Also, prescription medicines is still less that half the price of what the pharmacy downtown is charging you.
W: I guess you are right. IT just doesn’t seem fair that we have to pay a semester health fee and now we are going to have to pay even more.
M: Either way, you look at it we are still benefiting from it. You don’t have to go get a flue shot if you don’t want one, and we aren’t going to have to pay an increased health fee next semester. The only time it costs you more is if you get sick, and that seems pretty fair to me.
W: Yeah, maybe to you but I always end up getting sick this time of the year.
M: Well, then I suggest that you start wearing some warmer clothing and try using an umbrella.
質問：The man expresses his opinion of the notice from the Health centre. State his opinion and explain the reasons he gives for holding that opinion.
The notice was about increase of health fees. The man says that he feels the increase of health fees is still a good deal although she kind of disagrees. He points out that the cost of an influenza shot is $65 or more at a hospital. He also says that prescription medicine at the health centre is half the price of what it is at the downtown pharmacy. He also reminds her that they are not going to have to pay for an increased health fee and only have to spend the money on the hot if they want, or pay for medicine only when they get sick. He suggested that she be better prepared for weather conditions by dressing warmly and bringing umbrella not to get sick.
- According to the passage/announcement/flyer, the university plans to …
- The school intends to …
- The passage/announcement/flyer explains that the university is considering …
- The student agrees/disagrees with the school’s changes/decision/proposal for two/three reasons.
- The student supports/opposes these changes.
- However, the student does not support this plan.
- First, the student believes/feels/thinks that …
- The first point the student makes is that …
- One reason is that …
- One reason he/she supports/opposes this proposal is that …
- According to the student, …
①リーディング （45秒）→ ②リスニング（会話）→ ③設問に対するスピーキング
|The reading passage discusses A|
|The lecturer says|
注意点：part 3 とほぼ同じ
- リーディングの内容を簡潔にメモしておく what/where/when
- ３０秒の内にメモの書き足しをする （順序よく読めるようにしておく）
- レポート形式の場合はで 必ず 〇 the lecturer says ✖ the speaker said that のように動詞の時制を現在形にする
①リーディング パート(45秒)：Now read the passage about gentrification. Start reading it now.
Ascribed status and Achieved status
All human beings, as individuals, belong to a variety of social groups, and within those groups we all have a status and a role to fulfill. Our status is defined as our relative social position within a group. Statuses can vary from culture to culture, but in all societies, statuses are either achieved or ascribed. Achieved statuses are acquired by doing something. A firefighter can become a hero by saving lives, or a person can become a criminal by committing a crime. Ascribed statuses, on the other hand, are the result of being born in to a particular family or being born, for example, a male or a female. They are not the result of a decision or choice made by the individual.
②リスニングパート：Now listen to part of he lectures in a sociology class.
So, class, today let’s consider the concept of status. When we hear expressions like status symbol, we tend to think of status as a higher social position. Remember, however, that social status in this case usually refers to only one kind of status, that is, economic status. In sociology, we are interested in all kinds of statuses. Everyone in this class has both an achieved status and an ascribed status. Your achieved status is that of college student – you took certain actions and met certain requirements which earned you this status. Your gender, however, was not your choice. You were achieved statuses, and rejects the notion that ascribed statuses should give one member of society an advantage over any other member of society.
質問： Explain the difference between achieved status and ascribed status, using the samples give in the professor’s talk.
Both the passage and the lecture discuss the definitions of ascribed status and achieved status. The professor states that the difference between achieved status and ascribed status is that achieved status can be chosen, but ascribed status cannot. He says that an achieved status is something that is earned, for example, w person who meets certain requirements and makes certain decisions earns the status of being a college student. Ascribed status is something that people are sometimes born into. The professor gives the example of gender as an ascribed status. A person can’t choose to be born as a male or female. Generally speaking, American society tends to put more emphasis on achieved statuses that ascribed statuses and discourages discrimination on the basis on ascribed statuses. (113ワード）
- The passage discusses _____ and how it
- The main focus of the passage is …
- Both the passage and the lecture discuss …
- According to the lecture, _____ is …
- The passage introduces the concept of …
- In the lecture, the professor defines _____ as …
- The professor elaborates on this concept/term, explaining that …
- The professor first mentions that …
- First off, the professor talks about …
- Next, the professor discusses …
- The professor also explains that …
- Additionally, the professor says that …
- Another example the professor gives is that …
- This is what _____ means.
- And this is the meaning of …
- So this is how the professor describes …
|The students discuss the problem of A|
|The man says ……|
|The woman says……..|
|Personally, I would do|
①リスニングパート：Now listen to the following conversation.
W: How’s it going with your American History term paper?
M: Actually, not so good. When we had our topics approved, I told professor Hollowitz that I wanted to write about American Revolution. She said that was much to general, and told me to narrow it down to one key figure, like James Madison.
W: Sounds like good advice. SO, what is the problem?
M: when I started looking into it, I came across some interesting stuff about Benedict Arnold. You know, the traitor who spied for the British, he was…
W: I know, I know…. But what about paper?
M: Well, it is due in two weeks, and now I really want to write about Benedict Arnold, but if I go to professor Hollowits to change my topic, she might get mad that I have put it off so long. Besides, Benedict Arnold isn’t really a major figure in the Revolution.
W: I do not think that really matters. Why don’t you just write up a good outline of a paper on Benedict Arnold. IF it looks like you have put a lot of work into it, she will probably say it is ok.
M: Yeah, but what if she says I should have had it approved earlier?
W: Then y our other option is to forget about Benedict Arnold and all that spy stuff, and just write a paper on James Madison.
M: Hey, thanks for the advice. I ‘d better decide ASAP, huh?
質問：The students discuss two possible solutions to the man’s problem. Describe the problem. Then state which the two solutions you prefer and why. What do you think the man should do?
The man’s problem is that he has a writing assignment, which is due in two weeks but he wants to change the topic. He thinks that if he asked his professor to let him change the topic now, she will get angry, because he waited too long. The woman says that she doesn’t think it matters if he asks. She recommends that he prepare a good outline for his new topic, and she says that if the professor thinks he has put a lot of work into it, she will probably approve it. The woman also said that if the professor doesn’t approve the new topic, he should just write about the original one. I agree with the woman because I think there is no harm in asking. If she shows the professor that he is prepared to write about the new topic, the professor will probably let him change it. I am sure that he can write a far better paper by choosing a topic that really interested him. (168ワード)
- 解決策 1
- その理由 1 （解決策１がなぜいいのか（悪いのか）
- その理由 2（解決策２がなぜいいのか（悪いのか）
形式 ①リスニング（講義）→ ②スピーキング
|The lecturer discusses|
So class, today, I am going to talk about radon. Every day we are exposed to the threat of radon in our own homes. The reason is that the airspace in a home is enclosed. The more we ventilate our homes, by opening windows for example, the better our chances of reducing the formation of radon gases. Radon is a natural element in our atmosphere that comes from disintegration of radium. If high concentrations of radon enter our lungs, we increase the chances of getting lung cancer. Radon enters the home through things such as loose pipes or cracks in the floor. It may also enter the house through the water but the majority of it comes from foundation. There are two ways to test for radon which are called passive and active. An example of a passive tester would be a charcoal disk that collects radon. This disk is then later treated with a chemical to find out the concentration of radon in the home. An example of an active taster would be something that uses electricity and continuously monitors the levels. It might be a device that you plug into the wall socket and, like a fire alarm, will beep when it reads a level that is too high. The best way to protect yourself from radon is to check with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. They have a listing of radon levels for all the areas in the U.S. and can tell you if your home is located in one of the danger areas.
Radon is a natural element that arises from the breakdown of radium. The danger from radon comes from large concentrations of it that settle inside of our lungs. The result of this condition is that the person can contract lung cancer. A good way to protect yourself from radon exposure is to ventilate your home regularly. Another thing that can be done is to fill the cracks in your house’s floor and tighten pipes because radon enters the home form the foundation. An additional form of protection would be to have a radon indicator in the home. This could come in the form of a passive or active tester. It is also recommended that you contact the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to find out the levels of radon in your area.
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